Verbal classification is based on homogeneity or similarity between things like objects, pictures, letters, ideas and words. In this test, homogeneous items are grouped together but one will be different in some way. Your task is to identify the thing that does NOT belong to the group. For instance take the group “apple, orange, fruit, banana”. Of course they have many things in common but there is a fine distinction. While apple, orange and banana are specific, ‘fruit’ is a generic term: any fruit. Just like we say ‘Toyota, Honda, Ford and Car.’ The first three refer to three biggies in the industry (at least until the recent fall of Ford!!) while the last word is an umbrella term.
All probable relationships have to be explored while attempting such tests. Such relationships may be based on
1. meanings and interpretations
3. common prefixes/suffixes
As far as letter series is concerned, concern is to given to
1. position of letters in the alphabetical order
2. capital and small letter relationship
3. vowel-consonant relationship
4. frequency or omission of letters
How to deal with:
1. observe the possible relationship that exists between the words and letters.
2. observe repetitions, omissions etc, if any
3. identify and bifurcate the unrelated one from the rest
There can be two types of questions:
1. Series: In this type, four or five letters or words may be listed. All of them with the exemption of one are related in one way or the other.
eg: apple, orange, fruit, banana.
Here fruit is the odd one.
2. series with a key word at the top: In this case a key word may be given first followed by four or five alternatives with some letters or words. All of them with the exception of one are related to the key word in one way or the other.
part pit arc, par
Here pit is the odd one as all other words in the series are formed without changing the order of letters in the given key word.
Now examine the followings:
1. a) Jack fruit b) mango c) apple d) Guava
All words of this series are similar in the sense that they belong to fruits and all are grown on trees. While carefully observing, it could be seen that apple is the odd one as its first letter is vowel where as the first letters of the remaining are consonants. Here it is the letters and not the meaning of the words is taken to be considered.
2. a) Jack fruit b) mango c) spinach d) Guava
Here spinach is the odd one as it is not a fruit.
3. a) baCK b) laCK c) JAck d) paCK
Here JAck is the odd one as the first two letters of this word are capital and those of the remaining are small . Neither the meaning nor the sound is considered for constructing the relationship. It is based on the nature of letter- whether small or capital.
Attempt the followings:
1. a) snake, b) whale, c) turtle, d) crocodile
2. a) day, b) hour, c) time, d) second
3. a) seldom, b) ordinary, c) scarce, d) rare
4. a) saw, b) shovel, c) razor, d) scissors
5. a) saw, b) axe, c) razor, d) scissors
6. a) saw, b) blade, c) razor, d) scissors
7. a) abcd, b) efgh, c) zyxw, d) pqrs
8. a) M, b) N, c) O, d) P
9. FLOWER a) lotus, b) rose, c) cauliflower , d) cabbage
10. FISH a) prawn, b) tuna, c) mackeral, d) sardine
Answers:1)b, 2)c, 3)b, 4)b, 5)b, 6)a, 7)c, 8)c, 9)d, 10)a