International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD): In 1961, at the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles held in Paris, stress was laid on the need of standardization in bibliographic description. To solve the problem, International Meeting on Cataloguing Expert (ICME) was sponsored by IFLA and held in Copenhagen in 1969. The meeting formed a committee to study the problem of standardization in bibliographic description. The committee submitted its report at a meeting held in Liverpool in 1971 which is known as International Standard Bibliographic Description (Monograph) {ISBD (M)}. In course of its application many ambiguities and lack of details in some areas were discovered. To resolve the problem, IFLA conference was held in Grenoble in 1973. After the conference two documents- ISBD (M) and ISBD (S) were published. In 1975, the General International Standard Bibliographic Description [ISBD (G)] was developed. It serves as a single framework for the description of all types of publications in all types of media. The ISBD (G) was later on incorporated into AACR II as a general framework for bibliographic description.

The ISBD (G) acted just as some guiding principles. It was not intended for use as a working tool for the cataloguer. So, IFLA brought out the following ISBDs on the basis of ISBD (G) as working tool. Their names are:

ISBD (M): Monograph

ISBD (S): Serial

ISBD (CM): Cartographic Material

ISBD (AV): Audio Visual

ISBD (CF): Computer Files, etc.

            As ISBD has so many numbers they are called ISBDs.

A) Elements of ISBD (M)

i) Title and Statement of Responsibility

            i) Title proper

            ii) Parallel title or alternative title

            iii) Statement of authorship

b) Edition

            i) Edition statement

            ii) Statement of authorship related to edition

c) Imprint

            i) Place of publication

            ii) Name of publisher

            iii) Date of publication

            iv) Place of printing

            v) Name of printer

d) Collation

            i) Number of volumes and / or pages

            ii) Illustration matter

            iii) Size and accompanying material

e) Series

f) Notes

g) International Standard Book Number, binding, price

            i) ISBD

            ii) Binding

            iii) Price

B) Punctuation:ISBD also suggested proper punctuation mark for each and every item for making machine readable format.

[] :        If information is not available in the proper place;

() :        To denote omission;

/ :         Before the statement of author;

: :         It proceeds the name of publisher / sub title;

= :        Parallel title;

- :         Place of publication;

, :         Year of publication, etc.

C) Capitalization and Abbreviation: The first letter of the first word in each area is given in capital.

s.l. (Sine Loco), used when place of publication is not known;

s.n.: (Sine Nomina), used when name of publisher is unknown;

ill.: Illustration;

cm.: Centimetre;

D) Information Sources for ISBD:Generally the maximum required information for ISBD is available in the title page of the document itself.